The Katipunan, led by AndrÃ©s Bonifacio, began to influence much of the Philippines. The question was how they should retaliate, or rather what type of reforms they should demand. It was under this dictatorship that independence was finally proclaimed on June 12, 1898, in Aguinaldo's house in Kawit, Cavite. It is also important to look out for the background and biases of an author. By June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. A draft by an ilustrado lawyer, Felipe CalderÃ³n y Roca, was instead presented, and this became the framework upon which the assembly drafted the first constitution, the Malolos Constitution. ** Forced labor. The material progress was primarily due to the opening of the Manila ports to world trade. The subsequent Battle of Manila Bay only lasted for a few hours, with all of Montojo's fleet destroyed. As a result, Rizal “advocated a total moral regeneration of his countrymen, without which they did not deserve self-rule” and believed that the movement for reform should not be violent (Arcilla, 1991:369). On June 12, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence. Upon arriving on May 1, Dewey encountered a fleet of twelve Spanish ships commanded by Admiral Patricio Montojo. Refusing to allow the Filipinos to participate, reinforced U.S. forces captured Manila on August 13, 1898.  In 1872, the government of the succeeding governor-general, Rafael de Izquierdo, experienced the uprising of Filipino soldiers at the Fort San Felipe arsenal in Cavite el Viejo. More peninsulares (Spaniards born in Spain) began pouring into the colony and started to occupy the various government positions traditionally held by the criollos (Spaniards born in the Philippines). , With the new Spanish Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera declaring, "I can take Biak-na-Bato. The Cavite Mutiny of 1872, and the subsequent deportation of criollos and mestizos to the Mariana Islands and Europe, created a colony of Filipino expatriates in Europe, particularly in Madrid. The Kakarong Republic had a complete set of officials, with Canuto Villanueva as Supreme Chief and Captain General of the military forces, and Eusebio Roque, also known by his nom-de-guerre "Maestrong Sebio", then head of the Katipunan local organization, as Brigadier General of the Army of the Republic. These people met fellow Filipino students and other exiles who had escaped from penal colonies. The Katipunan obtained overwhelming number of members and attracted the lowly classes. In the early 19th century, Fathers Pedro PelÃ¡ez and Mariano GÃ³mez began organizing activities which demanded that control of Philippine parishes be returned to the Filipino seculars. The British capture and occupation of Manila in 1762â1764 made Spain realize the impossibility of isolating the colony from world intercourse and commerce. It called for the election of officers for the revolutionary government, which was in need of united military forces, as there was a pending Spanish offensive against the Magdalo faction. These became two of the leading business firms. They purchased more arms and ammunition to ready themselves for another siege. This attack failed; however, the surrounding provinces began to revolt. In his conclusion, he questions why the demands for reform only arose towards the end of the nineteenth century and remarks that “if the people were groaning under the yoke of Spanish tyranny, the question why the leaders for reform, instead of originally fighting for separation from such a despotic power, asked for the assimilation of the Philippine colony with the mother country, would remain unanswerable” (Pilapil, 1965:264). The first Filipino flag was again unfurled and the national anthem was played for the first time. Since 1896, the Philippines had been struggling to gain its independence from Spain in the Philippine Revolution.  Their execution had a profound effect on many Filipinos; JosÃ© Rizal, the national hero, would dedicate his novel El filibusterismo to their memory.. Father PelÃ¡ez, who was Archbishop of the Manila Cathedral, died in an earthquake, while Father GÃ³mez retired to private life. The Katipunan had "its own laws, bureaucratic structure and elective leadership".  Some of them, however, managed to escape to Hong Kong, Yokohama, Singapore, Paris, London, Berlin, and some parts of Spain. Agunaldo had recently returned there from Singapore expecting to be transported to Manila by the Americans, but McCulloch had no orders regarding this.  Ideological differences had contributed to its dissolution. At the same time, a royal decree ordered the secularization of Philippine churches, and many parishes were turned over to Philippine-born priests. Anybody who obstructs this sacred ideal of the people will be considered a traitor and an enemy, except if he is ill; or is not physically fit, in which case he shall be tried according to the regulations we have put in force. Supremo: AndrÃ©s Bonifacio (1896â1897)President: Emilio Aguinaldo(1897â1898)Early leaders:(until 1897) RomÃ¡n Basa Teodoro Plata Ladislao Diwa Emilio Jacinto  Balintawak in Caloocan saw intense fighting. August 26, 1896, the fiery Bonifacio stopped all the talking. Once reinforced, the Spaniards drove Bonifacio's forces back with heavy casualties. Before the opening of Manila to foreign trade, the Spanish authorities discouraged foreign merchants from residing in the colony and engaging in business. 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