The post-revival phase has to be considered if we are to understand the Second Great Awakening as a whole. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood. Instead, they were joined by neighbors, converting en masse. Noted for his friendly and respectful relationship with American Indians and his pluralistic and multicultural view of spiritual truth, George de Benneville was well ahead of his time. The Restoration Movement, which came out of an early camp meeting, focused on a fundamentalist interpretation of the New Testament and the establishment of a personal relationship with God. Exuberant revivalist meetings ignited the interest in religion. In many areas, particularly the south, blacks held separate revivals at the same time with the two groups joining together on the last day. Lesson summary: New England and Middle colonies. Workers also latched onto the message that they, too, could control their salvation, spiritually and perhaps financially. As a result, local churches saw their role in society as purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, as well as through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. One way of understanding the Second Great Awakening is in the context of sweeping social changes of the era. Difficulties with anti-Mormons led him and his followers to move to Kirtland, Ohio, in 1831. They rejected what appeared to be sterile, formal modes of worship in favor of a vigorous emotional religiosity. Due to persecution, the Mormons first moved to Ohio and then to Missouri. The Second Great Awakening During the early nineteenth century, a religious revival swept across Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The Second Great Awakening inspired prison reforms, temperance movement, women's suffrage movements, and abolishment movement. The “Burned-Over District” of upstate New York was a region that proved especially susceptible to the religious revivals of the early and mid-nineteenth century. The rising number of women congregants influenced the doctrine preached by ministers as well. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. Smith’s claims of translating the golden plates antagonized his neighbors in New York. The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, New York, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women’s organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier. These groups were unsatisfied with the already established faiths and created their own doctrines. Unlike the Episcopalian religion, ministers in these sects were typically uneducated. Mormonism was founded and led to the faith's settlement in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. Joseph Smith, Jr.: Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, which gave rise to Mormonism. And who were the leaders of the Great Awakening? No longer were individuals converting alone. Learn more about the Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening. In the newly settled frontier regions, the revivals of the Second Great Awakening took the form of camp meetings. The movement began around 1790 and gained momentum by 1800; after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. The reform efforts of the antebellum era sprang from the Protestant revival fervor that found expression in what historians refer to as the Second Great Awakening. 11355614 Evaluate the extent to which religious ideas of the Second Great Awakening shaped reform movements in the first half of the nineteenth century. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on ministers known as “circuit riders,” who sought out people in remote frontier locations. Mormons have a health code that eschews alcoholic beverages, tobacco, coffee, tea, and other addictive substances. Many people named this era the time of Romantic Christianity, meaning that love was the key to all things heavenly, God gifted those who loved. The movement began with the visions of Joseph Smith, Jr., in the “Burned-Over District” of upstate New York. The movement rejected Calvinism and promoted the idea that humans not only had freewill but could determine, through their actions, whether or not they deserved salvation. Out of ambition to be God's man on earth, many started to acknowledge the fact that maybe they needed to start at something bigger than themselves, at something about the size of America. Smith presented himself as a prophet and aimed to recapture what he viewed as the purity of the primitive Christian church that had been lost over the centuries. The first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation was by King’s Chapel in Boston, which revised the prayer book into a mild Unitarian liturgy in 1785. A much larger gathering was later held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in 1801, attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people. His essays, “The System of Exclusion and Denunciation in Religion” (1815) and “Objections to Unitarian Christianity Considered” (1819) made him a defender of Unitarianism. Numerous Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers participated in the services. Church membership and religious activity gave women peer support and a place for meaningful activity outside of the home. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Joseph Stevens Buckminster, influential Unitarian preacher: Joseph Buckminster’s preaching and texts greatly influenced American Unitarian thought. Women were seen as the moral center of the household. Women made up a large part of these voluntary societies. The social impact of the Second Great Awakening may be gauged by reviewing several main thrusts of the scholarly literature. The Second Great Awakening (1790–1840) was a time of evangelical fervor and revival in the newly formed nation of America. Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the social gospel of the late nineteenth century. The Second Great Awakening (1790–1840) was a time of evangelical fervor and revival in the newly formed nation of America. Mormons believe in the Bible, as well as other books of scripture, such as the Book of Mormon. People did not have the time or the inclination for worship. Preachers were also able to now talk to crowds larger than ever. To Smith, this meant restoring male leadership. The Second Great Awakening began to decline by 1870. Individual preachers like the Methodist bishop Francis Asbury (1745–1816) and the "Backwoods Preacher" Peter Cartwright (1785–1872) would travel the frontier on horseback converting people to the Methodist faith. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. Western New York still had a frontier quality at the time, making professional and established clergy scarce. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of nineteenth-century reform movements. T… This contributed to the piety of the area and many of the self-taught qualities found in folk religion. Colonial North America. He served as pastor of the Universalist Society of Boston and wrote many hymns. Universalism emerged in the late eighteenth century from a mixture of Anabaptists, Moravians, liberal Quakers, and people influenced by Pietist movements such as Methodism. Preachers and followers who embraced the new ideas brought forth by the Great Awakening became distinguished as “new lights.” Those who affirmed the old-fashioned, traditional church ways were designated “old lights.” Effects and Results of the Great Awakening. Mormons self-identify as Christian, though some of their beliefs differ from mainstream Christianity. Revivals were mass religious meetings featuring emotional preaching by evangelists such as the eccentric Lorenzo Dow. Social reform prior to the Civil War came largely out of this new devotion to religion. During the First Great Awakening, evangelists came from the ranks of several Protestant denominations: Congregationalists, Anglicans (members of the Church of England), and Presbyterians. Much like the previous awakening, there was a religious revival many of the following previous protestant ideals. After Smith was assassinated in 1844, Brigham Young and the Quorum of the Twelve took leadership of the church and led followers to a city near the Great Salt Lake in Utah. The burst of religious enthusiasm that began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians owed much to the uniqueness of the early decades of the republic. Many adopted millennialism, the fervent belief that the Kingdom of God would be established on earth and that God would reign on earth for a thousand years, characterized by harmony and Christian morality. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. T… Countless people were converted and many churches were changed and revived. The Second Great Awakening 25 revivals; they were depressed when there seemed to be a lack of religious The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. He aimed to create a New Jerusalem where the church would exercise oversight of its members. It was part of the religious ferment that swept western Europe in the latter part of the 17th century and early 18th century. The rise of evangelical influence in local, state, and national politics would influence all three branches of government, as legislative agendas now had to concede to the voting power of a religious block. The Second Great Awakening is … Part and parcel with these strong beliefs came a fear of secularism. Answer: The First Great Awakening (c. 1735-1743) and the Second Great Awakening (c.1795-1830) were theologically significant in that they helped to shape Christian thinking by the intense revivalism they created. This is the currently selected item. Rather, it was something that happened to people and by people, who may or may not have been led by God. The most prominent of these men was Jonathan Mayhew (1720–1766), pastor of the West Church in Boston, who preached the strict unity of God, the subordinate nature of Christ, and salvation by character. Conversion may even have served as a reaction to the perceived sinfulness of youthful frivolity. The driving force was the personal piety over theology and schooling. Joseph Stevens Buckminster by Gilbert Stuart circa 1810. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement in the first half of the 19th century. The Burned-over District Reconsidered: A Portent of Evolving Religious Pluralism in the United States. Main content. Click to read the fact file detailing the Second Great Awakening or download our entire worksheet bundle. The journey, taken by about 70,000 people, began with church fathers sending out advanced parties in March of 1846. These "Great Awakenings" happened between the 18th and late 20th century and were generally led by Protestant ministers. A street view of Arch Street between Third and Fourth Streets, depicting the Second Presbyterian Church, built 1750-1753, post the split between the Old and New Light Presbyterians. It enrolled millions of new members and led to the formation of new denominations. The Second Great Awakening as an Organizing Process, 1780-1830: An Hypothesis ... are concerned with the metamorphosis of ideas. Charles Grandison Finney, evangelist preacher: During the Second Great Awakening, progressively minded western evangelists, led by Charles Finney, challenged the establishment’s restrictions on women’s participation in the church. These were ideas … As early as the middle of the eighteenth century, a number of clergymen in New England preached what was essentially Unitarianism. The revivals typically followed an arc of great emotional power and emphasized the individual’s sins and need to turn to Christ, and subsequent personal salvation. The Second Great Awakening served as an organizing process that created, “a religious and educational infrastructure” across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges. Women usually acted in their “status quo” duties, teaching the virtues of motherhood and domesticity. The Second Great Awakening not only renewed America’s religious intensity but it also initiated many of the reform movements that would later seize the country, and some can even still be seen today. Joseph Smith (1805–1844) lived in upstate New York when he received visions in 1820. Main content. During the antebellum period, the Second Great Awakening inspired advocacy for a number of reform topics, including women’s rights. The belief that God speaks to his children and answers their prayers is central to Mormon faith. Yet the Second Great Awakening was hugely impactful and helped to change the way we think about and approach charity, giving, and concepts of "worthiness" that are still with us today. At first mystical rather than rationalist in his theology, he took part with the “Catholic Christians,” as they called themselves, who aimed at bringing Christianity into harmony with the progressive spirit of the time. A few years later, he reported the discovery of the Book of Mormon, which he said was a lost section of the Bible. Colonial North America. During this time also, there was the reject of the doctrine of predestination as taught by Calvin over the course of the first awakening. • The second great awakening was not an abstract idea of “revivalism” that mysteriously swelled during this time. The Second Great Awakening also brought desires of wanting to create a perfect society with no crime, war, intoxicating drinks, etc. Politics and native relations in the New England colonies. [ At the start of the Second Great Awakening, the largest religions were: Congregationalists (the 18th-century descendants of Puritan churches), Anglicans (known after the Revolution as Episcopalians), and Quakers. They were an integral part of the frontier expansion of the Second Great Awakening. Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint religious and cultural movement, emerged in the 1800s in upstate New York. People were convinced they were experiencing a visitation of the Holy Spirit such as the early church had known at Pentecost. Mormons also follow strict laws of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside of marriage and strict fidelity within marriage. Even more important than the basic literacy teaching was the teaching of moral principles. Identify the key religious movements that emerged out of the western New York frontier. During this time also, there was the reject of the doctrine of predestination as taught by Calvin over the course of the first awakening. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. The Second Great Awakening became an urban phenomenon with the leveling of church hierarchies. The majority of religious revivals occurred between the early 18th century and the late 20th century. What began as the leveling of hierarchies altered into several revivals. Arts and humanities US history Colonial America (1607-1754) Colonial North America. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation, they needed not only to repent for personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. Great Awakening, religious revival in the British American colonies between about 1720 and the 1740s. While there is no single reason women joined the revival movement, the revival provided many women with shared experiences. To appeal to this women’s movement, sermons often “feminized” Christ. The traditional school of thought has tended to portray the period as one marked by widespread secularization and the concomitant efforts of church elites to reestablish order and bring wandering Christians back into the ecclesiastical fold. Wagon train migrations to the far west continued sporadically until the twentieth century, but not everyone could afford to uproot and transport a family by railroad, and the transcontinental railroad network only serviced limited main routes. Americans from these religious backgrounds gradually created a new denominational tradition of Christian Universalism during the nineteenth century. After Smith’s death, a succession crisis ensued, and a majority voted to accept the Quorum of the Twelve, led by Brigham Young, as the church’s leading body. Baptists and Methodists found the largest number of converts, swelling their numbers across the United States, including in Ohio. 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